Borders in Nigeria’s Relations with Cameroun
Keywords:Borders, Relations, Nigeria, Cameroun, International Court of Justice.
AbstractBorder incidences are sources of irritants in the relationships between Nigeria and Cameroun. Examples are not far-fetched from Bakassi Peninsula imbroglio leading to hostile relationship between the two countries, and subsequent ruling of Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroun by the International Court of Justice in 2002. Indeed, this also led to the revival of the Joint Cameroun-Nigeria Border Commission entrusted with the task of demarcation of the Land and Maritime boundaries between the two countries, as mandated by the 2002 judgment. However, the demarcation exercise has caused confusion and anxiety with the inhabitants of the Cross River State, Nigeria, resulting in the inability of the team to locate pillar 133A, thereby erecting a new pillar. This exercise is lacking in proper consideration of the effects on the people in the demarcation of the land boundary. Thus, the paper finds out that the demarcationof the Land boundary which the International Court of Justice perceived as the antidote to the border skirmishes between Nigeria and Cameroun is likely to generate to another border conflicts between the two countries. This is so because, the erecting of new pillars will lead to another claim of some parts of Nigeria to Cameroun. Hence, the demarcation of Land boundary if not properly checked may be an outcome of future skirmishes and chaos.
Ate E. and Akinterinwa B. (1992), Nigeria and its Immediate Neighbours: Constraints and Prospects of Sub-Regional Security in the 1990’s. Nigeria Institute of International Affairs, Lagos. p288
Familugba J. and Ojo O. (2013), Nigeria-Cameroon Border Relations: An Analysis of the Conflict and Cooperation (1970-2004). International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol.3 no. 11 pp181-186.
Tarklebbea. N and Baroni S. (2010), The Cameroon and Nigeria Negotiation Process over the Contested Oil Rich Bakassi Peninsula. Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences. Vol.2, no. 1 pp198-210
Jeune Afrique (1996), Cameroon/Nigeria----- La guerre Secrete, no. 1871, pp13-19
Omode A. (2006), Nigeria’s Relations with Her Neighbours. Stud. Tribes Tribals, Vol. 4 no. 1 pp7-17
Amazee V. (1994), The Role of the French Cameroonians in the Unification of Cameroon, 1916-1961. Transafrica Journal of History 23, pp195-234
Africa Confidential (1994), Nigeria/Cameroon: Blundering into Battle. Vol.35, no.8, April 16, London. p.6
Konnings P. (2005), The Anglophone Cameroon-Nigeria Boundary: Opportunities and Conflicts. African Affairs, 104/415. Pp275-301, also see The Agreement between the Republic of Cameroon and Federal Republic of Nigeria concerning the Modalities of Withdrawal and Transfer of Authority in Bakassi Peninsula (The Green Tree Agreement) (retrieved 3 April 2014 from http://www.un.org/unowa)
Omole B. (2010), Nigeria, France and The Francophone States: The Joy and Anguish of Regional Power being Inaugural Lecture Delivered at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. Pp7-8
Fawole A. (2003), Nigeria’s External Relations and Foreign Policy under Military Rule (1966-1999). Obafemi Awolowo University Press Ltd, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Also see Omole B (2010), Nigeria, France and the Francophone States: The Joy and Anguish of a Regional Power.
Martins G. (1995) Francophone Africa in the Context of France-American Relations in Harbeson, John W. and Donald Rothschild, Africa in World Politics (2nd ed.) Boulder: West View Press. Pp 163-165
Tarkebbea N and Baroni S (2010), The Cameroon and Nigeria Negotiation Process over the Contested Oil Rich Bakassi Peninsula. Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences Vol. 2 no. 1. Pp 198-210
Ede O.O. B (1986) Nigeria and Francophone Africa in Nigeria’s External Relations: The First Twenty-five Years, Olusanya G.O. and Akindele R.A. (eds), University Press Limited, Ibadan. P 176
Omole B. (2010) Nigeria, France and The Francophone States: The Joy and Anguish of Regional Power, Inaugural Lecture Delivered at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. Pp 16-17
Ate, Bassey E. (1992) “Nigeria and Cameroon” In Nigeria and it’s Immediate Neighbours (2000) “Nigeria’s Relations with its Immediate Neighbours: A Security-Political Analysis. In Akindele, R.A and Ate, Bassey E. Selected Readings on Nigeria’s Foreign Policy and International Relations, The Nigerian Institute of International Affairs Enlightment Course Series, Vol. 1, no. 1 pp172-180
Akindele R.A and Akinterinwa B (1992) “The Effect of Territorial Contiguity and Geo-Political Propinquity on Foreign Policy: A Study of Nigeria’s Relations with its Neighbours”. In Ate, Bassey A and Akinterinwa B, Nigeria and Its Immediate Neighbours: Constraints and Prospects of Sub-Regional Security in the 1990s. Nigerian Institute ofInternational Affairs p243
Brownlie I (1985), African Boundaries, London Hurst and Company. Pp553-555. See also The Geographer, Cameroon and Nigeria Boundary (1969), International Boundary Study, office of Research in Economics and science, no.92
Imobighe T. (1989), Nigeria’s Defense and National Security Linkages: A Framework forAnalysis. Ibadan: Heinemann.
Akindele and Akinterinwa B (1992), “The Effect of Territorial contiguity and Geo-Political Propinquity on Foreign Policy: A Study of Nigeria’s Relations with its Neighbours”. In Ate, Bassey A and Akinterinwa B, Nigeria and its Immediate Neighbours: Constraints and Prospects of Sub-Regional Security in the 1990s. Nigerian Institute of International Affairs pp243-44
Dada, Abimbola S. (1992), Nigeria and its Immediate Neighbours: A Selected Bibliography. “In Nigeria and its Immediate Neighbours p264
Kapil R (1966), On the Conflict Potential of Inherited Boundaries in Africa, p.659, see also Herstlet G (1909), Map of Africa by Treaty.
Lord Salisbury quoted in Anene J.C (1970), The International Boundaries of Nigeria, 1885-1960: The Framework of an Emergent African Nation, London, and Longman. P.3
Asiwaju, A.I (1984), Partitioned Africans, Ethnic Relations across Africa’s International Boundaries, 1884-1984. Lagos: University of Lagos Press and London. Hurst and Co.
Kapil, R (1966), On Conflict Potential of Inherited Boundaries in Africa. Vol.18, n0 4 p659
Insights on the the Arbitrainess of African borders, see Ajala A. (1980), The Nature of African Boundaries, Afrika Spectrum, 18. Pp 177-188, Asiwaju A.I (1985), The Conceptual Framework, in A.I Asiwaju (Ed.) Partitioned Africans, New York: St. Martins)
Brownlie I. (1997), African Boundaries: Legal and Diplomatic Encyclopedia (London: C. Hurst); Ikome N. (2004), The Inviolability of Africa’s Colonial Boundaries. Lessons from Cameroon-Nigeria Border Conflict. Institute for GlobalDialogue, Johannesburg South Africa.
Meagher K. (2010), Identity Economics: Social Networks and the Informal Economy in Nigeria. Hebn: Ibadan. Pp76-77
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).