Social Justice for the Economic Rights on Traditional Knowledge in Medicinal Plants of Customary Law Communities
Keywords:social justice, customary law community, economic right
AbstractTraditional knowledge about medicinal plants and traditional medical treatment has been mastered by Indonesians long before the reign of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. The technology has been widely preserved by customary law communities. This knowledge has been adopted by medicine industry, both domestic and foreign, so factories can produce traditional medicines in a modern way. However, indigenous people, the inheritor of the knowledge, are not economically improved from the modernization of the traditional medicine. This becomes a problem since Indonesia was founded on the basis of social justice for all of its citizens, in addition to the goal of realizing the state’s ideals in compliance with the International Labor Organization Regulation No. 169 concerning Indigenous Peoples and Tribes in Independent Countries of 1989 and the preamble of the Indonesian Constitution. One of the ideals of this law is fair and equitable prosperity for all Indonesians, as explained by Notonegoro’s theory of social justice based on Pancasila that "social justice is about rights and obligations in life relationship and fairness relationship with other humans and with God, the causa prima, or religious justice". Therefore, the state seeks to govern through regulations in all fields, including intellectual property through patent law. Nevertheless, Indonesian patent laws have not answered the questions about the rights on traditional knowledge. Using normative research supported by primary and secondary legal material, future regulations that protect the technology of traditional medicines and medical treatment should be made more comprehensive by giving more attention to the economic rights of indigenous peoples, by referring to the social justice principles of the fifth precept of Pancasila.
Akhmaddhian, S. (2016). Penegakan Hukum Lingkungan dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Pertumbuhan Ekonomi di Indonesia. Jurnal Unifikasi, Vol. 03, Nomor 01.
Asshiddiqie, J. (2018). Konstitusi Keadilan Sosial, Jakarta: Kompas.
Darmodihardjo, D. (1979). Orientasi Singkat Pancasila. Dalam Santiaji Pancasila. Surabaya: Usaha Nasional.
Hadiyati, P. (2009). Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Adat Terpencil Melaui Model Penddikan Luar Sekolah, Jurnal Ilmiah VISI-PTK-PNF, Volume 4, No. 2, 2 December.
Hansen, Stephen, & Justin, F.T. (2003). Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property Rights: A handbook on Issues and Options for the holders in protecting their Intellectual Property and Maintaining Biological Diversity. Washington DC: Publisher AAAS.
Ikbal. (2011). Implementasi Hak Ekonomi, Sosial, dan Budaya Masyarakat Adat dalam Hukum HAM Internasional di Indonesia. Fiat Justisia Jurnal Ilmu Hukum Volume 5 No.3, September – Desember.
International Labour Organization Convention No. 169
Interview with I Wayan Sadre as Tenganan village head in August 2017
Interview with Rachmad Safa’at on April 4, 2018 in Faculty of Law, Universitas Brawijaya.
Interview with the chief of Tenganan village.
Kasim, I., & Arus, J. D. M. (2001). Hak Ekonomi, Sosial, Budaya, Ekonomi: Esai-Esai Pilihan. Jakarta: ELSAM.
Nabhani, A. (2012). Peran Bursa bagi Ekonomi. Harian Ekonomi Neraca. http://www.neraca.co.id/article/16039/peran-bursa-bagi-ekonomi. Retrieved 21 January, 2019.
Ndaumanu, F. (2018). Kebijakan Pemerintah Daerah Terhadap Upaya Perlindungan dan Penghormatan Mayarakat Hukum Adat di Kabupaten Alor Provnsi Nusa Tenggara Timur. Jurnal HAM Volume 9, Nomor 1.
Nurfatriani, F. (2006). Konsep Nilai Ekonomi Total Dan Metode Penilaian Sumberdaya Hutan. Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan, Vol. 3, No. 1.
Rawls, J. (1999). A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of the Harvard University Press.
Roisah, K. (2015). Kebijakan Hukum “Tranferability” Terhadap Perlindungan Hak Kekayaan Intelektual di Indonesia. Jurnal Law Reform, Volume 11, Nomor 2.
Suparta, I. W. (2017). Meneroka Relasi Hukum Negara dan Budaya. Jakarta: Pustaka Obor Indonesia.
The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia.
Thontowi, J. (2015). Pengaturan Masyarakat Hukum Adat dan iplementasi Perlindungan Hak-hak Tradisionalnya. Pandecta, Jurnal Penelitian Ilmu Hukum, Vol. 10, No. 1.
Warassih, E. (2014). Penegakan Hukum dan Persoalan Keadilan dalam Perpektif Sosial Budaya. In Pendulum Dalam Antinomi Hukum Antologi 70 Tahun, (Kriekhoff, V. J. L. (Ed)). Yogyakarta, Genta Publishing.
Yunus, R. (2013). Transformasi Nilai-Nilai Budaya Lokal Sebagai Upaya Pembangunan Karakter Bangsa. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan, Vol. 13, No. 1.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).