Election, International Election Monitoring Groups and Nigeria’s Fourth Republic

Godwin Ihemeje

Abstract


A representative democracy can be achieved through a free and fair electoral environment. It is at the instance of ensuring free and fair election that observation has emerged as a fundamental principle in restoring people’s confidence, trust and appraising electoral integrity for democratic development. The participation and involvement of international election observers in electoral matters aim to ensure that elections are conducted in accordance with conventional democratic ethical standards across the globe. Premised on this background, this paper seeks to examine the role of international election observers in major elections conducted in Nigeria’s fourth republic. Six international election observation bodies were sampled: National Democratic Institute (NDI), The Commonwealth Secretariat (CS), European Commission (EC), International Republican Institute (IRI), Human Right Watch (HRW) and Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). The study unravels the essential roles of international election observers in 1999, 2003, 2007 and 2011 elections in Nigeria. The paper therefore avers that international election observers have performed more than expectation in correcting previous electoral malfeasances through their dynamic reports and recommendations. Their monumental roles discerned the 2011 general election from the preceding 1999, 2003 and 2007 elections which were marred by miscellaneous electoral flaws in Nigeria. Thus, the paper recommends ultimate cooperation of Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), civil society, security agency and electorate with International Electoral Observers for the realization of sustainable democracy in Nigeria.


Keywords


Election, Election Observers, Fourth Republic, INEC, Nigeria.

References


ACE Electoral Knowledge Network (2013). The ACE Encyclopedia: Electoral Integrity. Published by ACE Electoral Knowledge Network

Alabi, A. & Sakariyau, R. (2013). Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) and the Conduct of 2011 Election in Nigeria: A Paradigm Shift. International Journal of Politics and Good Governance. Volume 4, No. 4.1 Quarter I

Awopeju, A. 2012. 2011’s Presidential Election and the Political Participation in Nigeria. Canadian Social Science Vol. 8, No. 2 pp. 96-103

Bamgbose, J. (2012). Electoral Violence and Nigeria’s 2011 General Elections. International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities Vol. 4, No. 1

Beaulieu, E. & Hyde, S. (2007). In the Shadow of Democracy Promotion:Strategic Manipulation, International Observers, and Election Boycotts [available at: http//www.hyde.research.yale.edu/bealieu_Hyde.pdf].

Central Election Commission (2006). Guide for International Observers: The 2006 Palestinian Legislative Council Elections. Palestine: Central Election Commission

DFID (2010). 2007 Elections in Nigeria. Department for International Development

Ezekwe, I. & Eme, O. (2010). Election observers’ mission and April 2007 elections in Nigeria: lessons for 2011 elections. Journal of Social Science and Public Policy.Volume 2.

European Commission (2008). Handbook for European Union Election Observation. European Commission, 2nd Edition.

Griffith, B. (2013). The importance of observers in international elections and how lawyers can get involved. Political Coalition Georgia Dream

Hyde, E. & Kelly, S. (2011). The limits of election monitoring: what independent observation can (and can’t) do. Council of Public Affairs

IFES (2011). Election observation: Nigerians vote in multiple national elections. International Foundation for Electoral Systems.

INEC (2014). INEC guidelines for election observation.

Nigeria: Independent National Electoral Commission.

IRI (20130. Nigeria’s programme summary. International Republican Institute.

Kuhne, W. (2010). The role of elections in emerging democracies and post-conflict countries: Key issues, lessons learned and dilemmas. Berlin: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, International Policy Analysis, Department for Global Policy and Development Hiroshimastrabe.

NDI Report (2008). Final NDI Report on Nigeria’s 2007 Elections. Nigeria: National Democratic Institute.

NEC (2009).Factsheet: The role of election observers [available at http//www.radiodabanga.org/sites/default/files/roles%20of%20observers%20EN.pdf]

Okoye, F. (2007). Assessing the credibility of elections: The challenges and problematic. Human Rights Monitor.

Orji, N. & Uzodi, N. (2012). The 2011 post-election violence in Nigeria. Published by Policy and Legal Advocacy Centre (PLAC) with Open Society Initiative for West Africa.

Ploch, L. (2012). Nigeria: current issues. Published by Congressional Research Service

United Nation (2014). Electoral assistance: Overview. Published by United Nations Department of Political Affairs.

UNDP (2010). A baseline readiness assessment of the Nigerian media as forum for citizen engagement in the 2011 elections. Published by United Nations Development Programme

Wondwosen, T. (2008). International election observers in Africa: The case of Ethiopia’s Alternatives. Turkish Journal of International Relations, Vol. 7, No. 1.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18533/journal.v8i11.1660

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




.............................................................................................................................

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

.............................................................................................................................

If you find difficulties in submitting manuscript please forward your doc file to support@theartsjournal.org. Our support team will assist you in submission process and other technical matters.

In order to get notifications on inbox please add theartsjournal.org in your email safe list.

Journal of Arts and Humanities (Print) ISSN:2167-9045

Journal of Arts and Humanities (Online) ISSN: 2167-9053

[Journal of Arts and Humanities previously published by MIR Center for Socio-Economic Research, MD, USA. From February 2018 this journal is published by the LAR Center Press, OR, USA]