Implementation Issues in Multicultural Education: What Are Secondary Public School Educators Facing?
Keywords:Multicultural education, secondary education, secondary teachers, multicultural education training.
AbstractThis mixed method study sought to explore the issues that faced secondary teachers in a rural central Georgia public high school when attempting to implement a multicultural education program. The key issues of this study centered on the teachers’ multicultural education training and the school’s multicultural education program. Data were gathered from a total of thirty randomly chosen teachers in the Social Studies, Math and English departments at the school. Twenty-five of the thirty teachers received a hard copy four question Likert scale survey to complete. The remaining 5 participants took part in face-to-face interviews discussing six open-ended questions. The findings pointed to several issues facing the teachers such as the lack of an officially implemented multicultural education program, the lack of support from school administrators, no in-service training available for teachers, parental and student misapprehension, and a lack of an officially defined policy on implementation and support of a multicultural education program from administrators locally and district-wide.
Assaf, L. Garza, R., & Battle, J. (2010). Multicultural teacher education: Examining the perceptions, practices, and coherence in one teacher preparation program. Teacher Education Quarterly, 37, 2,
pp. 115-135. ERIC, EBSCOhost.
Bailey, F. A. (2001). Teacher perceptions of the adequacy of their preparation for teaching students learning English as a second language. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Sarasota.
Banks, C. A., Banks, J. A. (2001). Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. (Original work published 1999)
Banks, C. A., Banks, J. A. (2013). Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives (8th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Banks, J. A. (1997). Teaching strategies for ethnic studies (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Bohn, A. P., & Sleeter, C. E. (October, 2000). Multicultural education and the standards movement. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(2), 156 - 160.
Brooks, W. (2006) Reading representations of themselves: Urban youth use culture and African American textual features to develop literary understanding. Reading Research Quarterly, I (3), 372-392. Doi:10.1598/RRQ.41.3.4
Camp, E. M. & Osterreich, H. A. (2010). Uncommon Teaching in Commonsense Times: A Case Study of a Critical Multicultural Education, 17(2), 20-26. Retrieved on December 18, 2015 from http://search ebscohost.com
Diaz, C. (Ed.). (1992). Multicultural education for the 21 century. Washington, D.C.: NEA Professional Library.
Garza, A.V., & Crawford, L. (2005). Hegemonic Multiculturalism: English Immersion, Ideology, and Subtractive Schooling. Bilingual Research Journa, 29(3), 599-619. Retrieved on December 17, 2015 from http://search.ebscohost.com
Gorski, P. (2000). The challenge of defining a single "Multicultural Education". In Multicultural super site defining multicultural education. Retrieved from http://www.mhhe.com/socialscience/education/multi/define.html
Huerta, C. G. (1999, February). Barriers to the implementation of multicultural education in a secondary teacher preparation program. High School Journal, 82(3), 150-159.
Hyland, N.E. (2009). One White Teacher’s Struggle for Culturally Relevant Pedagogy; The Problem of the Community. The Educator, 5(2), 95-112.
Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics (May, 2015). The condition of education 2015. Washington: U.S. Department of Education.
Key, L. (1997). Multicultural education training for educators: What effect does it have on the academic achievement of secondary students of color? Unpublished manuscript.
Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Multicultural teacher education: Research, practice, and policy. In Banks, J.A., McGee Banks, C.A. (Ed.), Handbook of research on multicultural education (pp. 747-759). New York: Macmillan Publishing USA.
Lipman, P., & Research for Better Schools, I.A. (1995). Academic Excellence, Cultural Relevance, Community Connectedness: Lessons from R.W. Coleman Elementary School. Retrieved on December 18, 2015 from http://search ebscohost.com
Marshall, C., & Rossman, R. B. (1999). Designing qualitative research (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
McField, G. P. (2014). The Miseducation of English learners: A tale of three states and lessons to be learned. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
McMillan, J. H. (2012). Educational Research Fundamentals for the Consumer (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson.
Orinstein, A. C. & Hunkins, F. P. (2013). Curriculum foundations, principles, and issues. Boston: Pearson.
Patterson, D. (2012). Building the case for culturally responsive teaching in physical education: Using school students’ perceptions toward multiethnic groups. Current Issues in Education 15, no. 3: 1-10 Education Source, EBSCO host.
Premier, J. A., & Miller, J. (2010). Preparing pre-service teachers for multicultural classrooms. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 35(2), 35-48.
Schreiber, J. & Asner-Self, K. (2011). Educational research. Hoboken: Wiley & Sons.
Scoon-Reid, K. (March 21, 2001). U.S. census underscores diversity. Education Week, 20(27), 18, 19. Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/
Spradley, J. (1979). The ethnographic interview. NY: Holt, Reinhart & Winston.
Vincent, S., & Torres, R. (2015). Multicultural competence: A case study of teachers and their student perceptions. Journal of Agricultural Education, 56(2), 64-75. doi: 10.5032/jae.2015.02064
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).