A Helping Hand: Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI)
Keywords:individualized instruction, personal learning
AbstractIndividually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) is an approach to teaching that emphasizes the diagnosis of learning problems and the provision of prescriptive assignments to assist individual students overcome their difficulties. When this strategy is employed effectively, the teaching environment is highly adaptive. The teacher matches the students' abilities to alternate ways of learning, and also provides remedial assistance and positive reinforcement. Individually Prescribed Instruction has been shown to be effective across the school curriculum. This writer reviews the success of this strategy for assisting students overcome learning problems, and proposes a model for its implementation in music instruction.
Andrews, Bernard W. "An Alternate Approach to Music Instruction." Teacher Education, No. 26 (1985): 60-70.
Ball, Charles. "Music Missed Opportunities." Design for Arts in Education 91, No. 6 (1990): 49-52.
Bartel, Lee. Questioning the Music Education Paradigm. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Music Educators Association, 2004.
Benner, Charles. From Research to the Music Classroom No. 2. Washington, D.C.: Music Educators National Conference, 1972.
Bolvin, John. "Individually Prescribed Instruction Reading Program," in Clay Ketcham, ed., Proceedings of the College Reading Program, Vol. 9. College Reading Association, 1968.
Boyd, Joshua. "Idea Bank Progress through Incentives: How One Music Program Helps Students Progress to Higher Levels of Musicianship." Music Educators Journal 100, No. 1 (2013): 23-25.
Elliott, David. Music Matters: A New Philosophy of Education. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Erbes, Robert. "I used to direct my rehearsals like a drill sergeant!" Music Educators Journal 65, No. 2 (1978): 50-53.
Fleischmer, Jeannette and Garnett, Katherine. "Arithmetic Learning Disabilities: A Literature Review," in Research Review Series, Vol. 4. Research Institute for the Study of Learning Disabilities, Columbia University, 1979-80.
Frederickson, Matthew L. "The National Standards for Music Education: A Transdisciplinary Approach in the Applied Studio." Music Educators Journal 97, No. 2 (2010): 44-50.
Glaser, Robert. Preliminary Report: IPI Institute. Philadelphia, PN: Research for Better Schools, 1966.
Glaser, Robert. The Program for Individually Prescribed Instruction, Working paper No. 2. Pittsburgh: Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh, 1966.
Goldstein, Marjorie. "Curriculum: The Keystone to Instructional Planning in Special Education." Paper presented at the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Research and Theory Division, Dallas, Texas, 1982.
Greer, R. Douglas. "Music Instruction as Behaviour Modification," in Research in Music Behaviour: Modifying Behaviour in the Classroom, eds. Clifford Madsen, R. Douglas Green and Charles Madsen. New York: Teachers College Press, 1975: 3-11.
Harrisberger, John. "Self-Paced Individually Prescribed Instruction." Journal of Engineering Education 61, No. 6 (1971): 508-516.
Lipson, Joseph. "Experience with Individualized Instruction." Journal of College Science Teaching 11, No. 1 (1981): 42-44.
Lawrence, Stephen Logan. "Development and Evaluation of a Self-Instructional Program in Music Reading for Instrumental Music Students." PhD thesis, University of Iowa, 1973.
Lindrall, C. Mauritz and Bolvin, John O. Individually Prescribed Instruction: The Oakleaf Project. Working Paper No. 8. Pittsburgh, PA: Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh, 1966.
Mantie, Roger, and Tucker, Lynn. “Closing the gap: Does music-making have to stop upon graduation?” International Journal of Community Music, 7, No. 2 (2008): 217-227.
Moores, Donald F. "One size does not fit all: Individualized instruction in a standardized educational system." American Annals of the Deaf 158, No. 1 (2013): 98-103.
Owens, DeAnna N. "Key to College and Career Readiness." PhD dissertation, 2013.
Price, Harry. "The Effect of Conductor Academic Task Presentation, Conductor Reinforcement and Ensemble Practice on Performers' Musical Achievement, Attentiveness and Attitude." Journal of Research in Music Education 31, No. 4 (
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).