The inadequacy of the Risk Mitigation model for the restoration of livelihoods of displaced people. Case Study: The Cambodian Railway Rehabilitation Project.
Keywords:Risk Mitigation Model, Development-induced Displacement.
AbstractDevelopment-induced displacement (DID) affects millions of people per year, a human toll that is often considered the ‘price of development’ to be ‘addressed’ through Cernea’s Risk Mitigation Model. The model, by its very name, seeks to mitigate the extent of DID and the negative effects thereof. However, this paper will demonstrate that the model is doomed to be inadequate in adequately restoring the livelihoods of displacees, as it leaves unquestioned the structural power imbalances that underpin the selection of development sites and the proposed displacees, who are themselves often already vulnerable and marginalised. Similarly the model imagines tokenistic participation as the only constructive engagement available to displacees, rather than involving the proposed displacees in the process of determining the shape and nature of ‘development’ in their area.
* Aid Watch. (2012). Off the Rails: AusAID and the Troubled Cambodian Railways Project. Available online at: http://www.aidwatch.org.au/sites/aidwatch.org.au/files/CambodiaReport_Final-WEB.pdf. Accessed on 27 March 2014).
* ADB - Asian Development Bank. (1995). Involuntary Resettlement Guidelines. Available online at: http://www.adb.org/documents/policy-involuntary-resettlement. (Accessed 27 March 2014).
* Asian Development Bank. (1998). Handbook on Resettlement – A Guide to Good Practice. Available online at: http://indr.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Handbook_on_Resettlement.pdf (Accessed 3 April 2014).
Asian Development Bank. (2003). Social Protection.Framework, Policies and Strategies. Available online at: http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/pub/2001/social-protection.pdf. (Accessed on 4 April 2014).
* Asian Development Bank Operations Evaluation Department.(2006). Special Evaluation Study on Involuntary Resettlement Safeguards. Available online at: http://www.adb.org/documents/involuntary-resettlement-safeguards. (Accessed 27 March 2014).
* Asian Development Bank. (2009). Safeguard Policy Statement.Policy Paper. Available online at: http://www.adb.org/documents/safeguard-policy-statement. (Accessed 27 March 2014).
* Asian Development Bank. (2014). Final Report on Compliance Review Panel Request No. 2012/2 on the Greater Mekong Subregion: Rehabilitation of the Railway Project in the Kingdom of Cambodia. Available at: http://compliance.adb.org/dir0035p.nsf/attachments/Cambodia-FinalReport-13Jan2014_OSEC%20Submission.pdf/$FILE/Cambodia-FinalReport-13Jan2014_OSEC%20Submission.pdf (Accessed on 28 March 2014).
* BABC - Bridges Across Borders Cambodia. (2009). Untitled: Tenure Insecurity and Inequality in the Cambodian Land Sector. Available online at: http://www.babcambodia.org/untitled/untitled.pdf. (Accessed on 3 April 2014).
BABC.(2013). Background to the Rehabilitation of the Railways Project and Resettlement Impacts. Available online at: http://www.babcambodia.org/railways/background.htm (Accessed 3 April 2014).
* BABC. (2012). Derailed: A Study on the Resettlement Process and Impacts of the Rehabilitation of the Cambodian Railway. Available online at: http://www.babcambodia.org/derailed/derailed.pdf (Accessed on 31 March 2014).
* Bennett, O. and McDowell, C. (2012). Displaced: The Human Cost of Development and Resettlement. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
* Boyle, D. and Titthara, M. (2012). Land Grab in Battambang. The Phnom Penh Post. Available online at: http://www.phnompenhpost.com/national/land-grab-battambang. (Accessed on 10 April 2014).
* Cammack, P. (2002). Neoliberalism, the World Bank, and the New Politics of Development.In U. Kothari & M. Minogue (Eds.) Development Theory and Practice.Critical Perspectives. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave.
* Cernea, M. (1997). The Risks and Reconstruction Model for Resettling Displaced Populations.World Development, 25 (10), pp.1569-1587.
* Cernea, M.M. (2000a). Impoverishment Risks, Risk Management, and Reconstruction: A Model of Population Displacement and Resettlement. Available online at: http://www.communitymining.org/attachments/254_population_resettlement_IRR_MODEL_cernea.pdf(Accessed 27 March 2014).
Cernea, M.M. (2000b). Risks, Safeguards and Reconstruction: A Model for Population Displacement and Resettlement. Economic and Political Weekly, 35 (41), pp.3659-3678.
* Cernea, M.M. (2006). Development-induced and conflict-induced IDPS: bridging the research divide. Forced Migration Review. Available online at: http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/BrookingsSpecial/15.pdf (Accessed on 2 April 2014).
* Cernea, M.M. (2013). Recommendations of the Consultant’s Report, ‘Monitoring of Population Resettlement in Cambodia’s Railway Rehabilitation Project: Current Status, Strengths, Weaknesses and Recommendations’. Available online at: http://sithi.org/temp.php?url=publication_detail.php&mid=7129#.U1Qt5fmSwV8. (Accessed 27 March 2014).
* COHRE – Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions. (2008). Respect for Housing, Land and Property Rights in Cambodia. Available online at: http://www.cohre.org/sites/default/files/cambodia_-_title_through_possession_or_title_through_position_nov_2008.pdf (Accessed on 3 April 2014).
* CCC - Cooperation Committee for Cambodia. (2001). Small-scale land distribution in Cambodia: Lessons from Three Case Studies. Available at: http://www.ccc-cambodia.org/downloads/adi/adireport/Land%20distribution%20report%20final-Eng.pdf (Accessed on 10 April 2014).
* Cornwall, A. (2008). Unpacking ‘Participation’: models, meaning and practices. Community Development Journal, 43 (3), pp.269-283.
* DFAT – Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2013). Community Resettlement on the Cambodia Railway: Health Insurance. Available online at: http://aid.dfat.gov.au/countries/eastasia/cambodia/Pages/resettlement-cambodia-railway.aspx (Accessed on 10 April 2014).
* Dwivedi, R. (2002). Models and Methods in Development-Induced Displacement (Review Article).Development and Change, 33 (4), pp.709-732.
* Fox, J.A. (2000). When Does Reform Policy Influence Practice? Lessons from Bank-wide Resettlemetn Review.In J.A. Fox & L.D. Brown (Eds). The Struggle for Accountability
* Gaventa, K. (2004). Towards Participatory Governance: Assessing the Transformative Possibilities. In Hickey, S. and Mohan, G. (Eds). Participation: From Tyranny to Transformation? London, UK: Zed Books.
* Global Witness. (2007). Cambodia’s Family Trees: Illegal Logging and the Stripping of Public Assets. Available online at: http://www.globalwitness.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/cambodias_family_trees_low_res.pdf (Accessed on 3 April 2014).
* Gollifer, S. (2013). ‘Beyond almost all politicians there are women in the shadows’: women’s experience of local governance. In Smith, J. (Ed). Journeys from Exclusion to Inclusion: Marginalized women’s successes in overcoming political exclusion. Stockholm, Sweden: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.
* Grabska, K. and Mehta, L. (2008) Introduction. In K. Grabska& L. Mehta (Eds.) Forced Displacement. Why Rights Matter. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
* Halabi, K. (2005). Review of Experiences in Land Distribution in Cambodia. Land Allocation for Social and Economic Development. Available online at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTCAMBODIA/Resources/293755-1151087924882/Experiences-in-land-distribution.pdf. (Accessed on 3 April 2014).
* Hickey, S. and Mohan, G. (2005). Relocating Participation within a Radical Politics of Development.Development and Change, 36 (2), pp.237-262.
Hollenbach, D. (2010). Driven from Home: Protecting the Rights of Forced Migrants. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
Holzmann, R., Sherburne-Benz, L., Tesliuc, E. (2003). Social Risk Management: The World Bank’s Approach to Social Protection in a Globalizing World. The World Bank. Available online at: http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/78330/3rd%20Workshop/Srmafrica/paristwo/pdf/readings/srmapproach.pdf (Accessed on 4 April 2014).
* Hughes, C. (2008). Cambodia in 2007: Development and Dispossession. Asian Survey, 48 (1), pp.69-74.
* HRLC - Human Rights Law Center. (2012). Complaint to the Australian Human Rights Commission Submitted on behalf of people affected by the Cambodia Railway Rehabilitation Project. Available online at: http://www.hrlc.org.au/files/Complaint-to-the-Australian-Human-Rights-Commission-FINAL.pdf (Accessed on 4 April 2014).
* Inclusive Development International. (2012). Press Release: IDI Submits Complaint to the Australian Human Rights Commission on AusAID’s Railway Debacle. Available online at: http://www.inclusivedevelopment.net/cambodian-railway-development-causes-human-rights-violations-ausaid-complicit/ (Accessed on 4 April 2014).
* Inclusive Development International. (2013). Human Rights and the World Bank Safeguards Review. Lessons from Cambodia: Forced Evictions and the Limits of World Bank Accountability. Inclusive Development. Available online at: http://www.inclusivedevelopment.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Human-Rights-and-the-World-Bank-Cambodia-Case-Study1.pdf. (Accessed on 3 April 2014).
IWDA – International Women’s Development Agency Inc. (2013). Supporting Cambodian Women’s Civil and Political Participation. Available online at: http://www.iwda.org.au/our-work/civil-and-political-participation/supporting-cambodian-womens-civil-and-political-participation/ (Accessed on 10 April 2014).
* Kimchoeun, P., Vuthy, H., Netra, E., Sovatha, A., Sedara, K., Knowles, J., and Craig, D. (2007). Accountabiity and Neo-Patrimonialism in Cambodia: A Critical Literature Review. Cambodia Development Research Institute. Working Paper 34. Available online at: http://www.utexas.edu/lbj/sites/default/files/file/WP34e.pdf (Accessed 3 April 2014).
* Kooy, M. (2006). Enforcement and/or Empowerment.In Vandergeest, P. (Ed). Development’s Displacements: Economies, Ecologies, and Cultures at Risk. Vancouver, Canada: UBC Press.
* Lateline, (2011). ‘Cambodian Railway Line to Displace Country’s Poor’. Televised on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) on 13 May, 2011. Available online at: http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/content/2011/s3216781.htm (Accessed on 27 March 2014).
* Lin, C.Y.O. (2008a). Autonomy Reconstituted: Social and Gendered Implications of Resettlement on the Orang Asli of Peninsula Malaysia. In Elmhirst, R. and Resurreccion, B.P. (Ed). Gender and Natural Resource Management: Livelihoods, Mobility and Interventions. Pp.109-126. UK: Routledge.
* Lin, C.Y.O. (2008b). Indigenous Peoples, Displacement Through ‘Development’ and Rights Violations: the Case of the Orang Asli of Peninsula Malaysia. In Grabska, K. and Mehta, L. (Eds) Forced Displacement Why Rights Matter. Pp.179-197. Basingstoke, New Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
* McDowell, C. (1996). Understanding Impoverishment: The Consequences of Development-Induced Displacement. Oxford, New York: Berghahn Books
* McGee, R. (2002). Participating in Development.In U. Kothari & M. Minogue (Eds.) Development Theory and Practice.Critical Perspectives. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave.
* Mehta, L. (2002). The Double Bind: A Gender Analysis of Forced Displacement and Resettlement. First and preliminary draft for paper prepared for workshop ‘Engendering Resettlement Policies and Programmes in India’. Available online at: http://www.ids.ac.uk/files/doublebind.pdf. Accessed on 27 March 2014.
Ministry of Public Works and Transport, Kingdom of Cambodia. (2006). Cambodia: GMS Rehabilitation of the Railway in Cambodia Project Resettlement Plan. Asian Development Bank Resettlement Planning Document. ADB – TA: 6251 REG. Available online at: http://indr.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/149-GMS-Rehabilitation-of-the-Railway-in-Cambodia-Project-January-2007.pdf(Accessed 3 April 2014).
Minogue, M. and Kothari, U. (2002). Conclusion: Orthodoxy and its Alternatives in Contemporary Development. In U. Kothari & M. Minogue (Eds.) Development Theory and Practice.Critical Perspectives. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave.
* Morvaridi, B. (2004). Resettlement, Rights to Development and the Illusu Dam, Turkey.Development and Change, 35 (4), pp.719-741.
* Morvadidi, B. (2008). Rights and Development-Induced Displacement: Risk Management or Social Protection? In Grabska, K., and Mehta, L. (Eds).Forced Displacement: Why Rights Matter. New York, USA: Palgrave MacMillan.
* Muggah, R. (2007). Relocation Failures in Sri Lanka: A Short History of Internal Displacement and Resettlement. London, UK: Zed Books
Napier-Moore, R. and Gent, S. (2007). Rights-based Policies and Forced Migrants.Working Paper No.8.Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty.
OECD.(2013). Poverty and Inequality Disparities in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Vietnam.Southeast Asian Economic Outlook 2013.With Perspectices on China and India.Available online at: http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/southeast-asian-economic-outlook-2013/poverty-and-inequality-disparities-in-cambodia-lao-pdr-myanmar-and-viet-nam_saeo-2013-11-en#page1. (Accessed on 2 April 2014).
* OHCHR – Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. (2009) Land Grabbing in Cambodia. Available online at: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/Protectingtherighttoland.aspx
* Oliver-Smith, A. (2010). Defying Displacement: Grassroots Resistance and the Critique of Development. Austin, TX, USA: University of Texas Press.
* Prasetyo, J.A. (2007). KedungOmbo. In McGlynn, J.H., Motuloh, O., Charle, S., Hadler, J., Bujono, B., Glade-Agusta, M., Suhartono, G., Abduallah, T., Mohamad, G., (Eds). Indonesia of the Soeharto Years: Issues, Incidents and Images, with a foreword by Jimmy Carter. Jakarta, Indonesia: Lontar/KITLV.
* SahmakumTneangTnaut. (2011). Rehabilitation of Cambodia’s Railway: Comparison of Field Data. Available at: http://tneungnaut.org/PDF/Rehabilitation%20of%20Cambodias%20Railways_STT%20July%202011.pdf. (Accessed 27 March 2014).
Santos, L.A. (2014). ADB Admits Mistakes Over Controversial Railway Project in Cambodia’, Devex Development Newswire. Available online at: https://www.devex.com/news/adb-admits-mistakes-over-controversial-railway-project-in-cambodia-82809 (Accessed 27 March 2014).
* Schneider, A. E. (2011). What Shall we do Without our land? Land Grabs and Resistance in Rural Cambodia. Paper presented at the International Conference on Global Land Grabbing, 6-8 April 2011. Available online at: https://www.google.com.au/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CEQQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.future-agricultures.org%2Fworkshop-resources%2Fdoc_download%2F1264-what-shall-we-do-without-our-land-land-grabs-and-resistance-in-rural&ei=CB5dU9_5NozN4QSLkoHgBQ&usg=AFQjCNF8bK4_U2oAx8XkTcKf-90sUEsw_A&sig2=hinjO6VAZkgKjWGAz68Scw&bvm=bv.65397613,d.bGE (Accessed on 10 April 2014).
* Solesbury, W. ‘Sustainable Livelihoods: A Case Study of the Evolution of DFID Policy”. Overseas Development Initiative Working Paper 217. Available online at: http://www.odi.org.uk/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/172.pdf. (Accessed on 27 March 2014).
Stanley, J. (2003). Development Induced Displacement and Resettlement. Available online at: http://www.forcedmigration.org/research-resources/expert-guides/development-induced-displacement-and-resettlement/fmo022.pdf (Accessed on 2 April 2014).
* Sydney Morning Herald. (2014). Cambodian Aid Project Partly Funded by Australia Led to Child Deaths, Report Finds. Available online at: http://www.smh.com.au/world/cambodian-aid-project-partly-funded-by-australia-led-to-child-deaths-report-finds-20140209-hvbqb.html (Accessed on 27 March 2014).
* Terminski, B. (2013). Development-Induced Displacement and Resettlement: Theoretical Frameworks and Current Challenges. Available online at: http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/dlc/bitstream/handle/10535/8833/Bogumil%20Terminski,%20development-Induced%20Displacement%20and%20Resettlement.%20Theoretical%20frameworks%20and%20current%20challenges.pdf?sequence=1 (Accessed on 27 March 2014).
* The Guardian. (2008). Cambodians Eat Rats to Beat Global Food Crisis. Available online at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/aug/27/cambodia. (Accessed on 4 April 2014).
* Turton, D. (2002). Forced Displacement and the Nation-State. In Robinson, J. (Ed).Development and Displacement. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
Vandergeest, P. (2006). Introduction.In Vandergeest, P. (Ed). Development’s Displacements: Economies, Ecologies, and Cultures at Risk. Vancouver, Canada: UBC Press.
Vandergeest, P. (2003). Land to some tillers: Development-induced displacement in Laos.UNESCO. Available online at: http://lad.nafri.org.la/fulltext/2157-0.pdf (Accessed on 4 April 2014).
Williams, G. (2004). Towards a repoliticization of participatory development: political capabilities and spaces of empowerment. In Hickey, S. and Mohan, G. (Eds). Participation: From Tyranny to Transformation? London, UK: Zed Books.
World Bank. (1990a). World Development Report: Poverty. New York: Oxford University Press.
* World Bank. (1990b). Operational Directive OD4.30.Involuntary Resettlement. Available online at: http://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/322d9d80488559f584b4d66a6515bb18/OD430_InvoluntaryResettlement.pdf?MOD=AJPERES (Accessed 4 April 2014).
* World Bank. (2000). World Development Report 2000/2001: Attacking Poverty. Washington, DC: World Bank.
World Bank.(2001a). Social Risk Management.The World Bank’s Approach to Social Protection in a Globalizing World. Available online at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/SOCIALPROTECTION/Publications/20847129/SRMWBApproachtoSP.pdf (Accessed on 4 April 2014).
* World Bank. (2001b). Operational Directive OD4.12.Involuntary Resettlement.Available online at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/EXTPOLICIES/EXTOPMANUAL/0,,contentMDK:20064610~menuPK:64701637~pagePK:64709096~piPK:64709108~theSitePK:502184,00.html.(Accessed on 4 April 2014).
* World Bank. (2004). Involuntary Resettlement Sourcebook – Planning and Implementation in Development Projects. Available online at: http://www4.worldbank.org/afr/ssatp/resources/html/gender-rg/Source%20%20documents%5CTool%20Kits%20&%20Guides%5CDesigning%20Projects/TLPRO10%20invol%20resettlementsourcebookWB.pdf. (Accessed on 2 April 2014).
* World Bank. (2012). Recent Experience with Involuntary Resettlement: Indonesia – KedungOmbo. Available online at: http://lnweb90.worldbank.org/oed/oeddoclib.nsf/DocUNIDViewForJavaSearch/6C34C30D2054817D852567F5005D6224. (Accessed online at 7 April 2014).
World Bank.(2013). Cambodia Overview. Available online at: http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/cambodia/overview. (Accessed on 2 April 2014).
* Yasar, Y. (2010). Gender, Development, and Neoliberalism: HIV/AIDS in Cambodia. Review of Radical Political Economics, 42, pp.528-548.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).