Pretend play enhances creativity and imagination
Keywords:Pretend play, creativity, imagination
AbstractThis paper reviews the literature to examine the themes that aims to find the association of pretend play with creativity and how pretend play is predictive of later life creativity. The developmental trends and issues of the play and creativity are also examined to find if any age and gender differences are there in developmental patterns of creativity through pretend play. The review of literature made it clear that pretend play uses cognitive processes that are involved in creative thinking. So pretend play is a predictor of creativity. Results of studies till date also indicated that creativity though develops in continuum has periods of lags and spurts throughout the childhood to adolescence. Gender differences have also been found in girls and boys play behaviors as girls are found to be engaged more in realistic role-playing than boys of their age in preschools. Later girls are found to excel boys in verbal and fluency tasks of creativity in early adolescence.Keywords: Pretend play, Creativity, Cognitive Processes, Developmental patterns, Gender differences and Review
Barrantes-Vidal, N., Caparros, B., Obiols, J. E. 1999. An exploratory study of sex differences in divergent thinking and creative personality among college subjects. Psychological Reports, 85:1164-1166.
Carson, D. K., & Runco, M.1999. Creative problem solving and problem finding in young adults: Interconnections with stress, hassles and coping abilities. Journal of Creative Behavior, 33:167-190.
Cheung, C. P., & Lau, S. 2010. Gender differences in the creativity of Hong Kong school children: Comparison by using the new electronic Wallach-Kogan Creativity Test. Creativity Research Journal, 22(2): 194-199.
Cheung, C. P., Lau, S., Chan, W. D., Wu, H. Y. W. 2004. Creative potential of school children in Hong Kong: Norms of the Wallach- Kogan Creativity Tests & their implications. Creativity Research Journal, 16 (1): 69-78.
Claxton, F.A., Pannells, C. T., Rhoads, A. P. 2005. Development trends in the creativity of school age children. Creativity Research Journal, 17(4): 327-335.
Coates, S. 1972. Preschool Embedded Figure Test. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. 1981. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test- Revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Guilford, J. P. 1968. Intelligence, creativity and their educational implications. San Diego: Knapp.
Isenberg, P., & Jalongo, M. 1993. Creative expression & play in the Early Childhood Curriculum. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Printice Hall.
Jones, A., & Glenn, S. M. 1991. Gender differences in pretend play in a primary school group. Early Child Development and Care, 77: 127-135.
Kavanaugh, R. D., & Harris, P. L. 1994. Imaging the outcome of pretend transformations: Assessing the competence of normal children and children with autism. Developmental Psychology, 30: 847-854.
Kim, J., & Michael, W. B. 1995. The relationship of creativity measures to school achievement and to preferred learning and thinking style in a sample of Korean high school students. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55: 60–74.
Kusche, C. A., Greenberg, M. T., Beilke, B. 1988. The Kusche Affective Interview. Unpublished manuscript, University of Washington, Seattle.
Lau, S., & Li, W. L. 1996. Peer status and perceived creativity: Are popular children viewed by peers and teachers as creative? Creativity Research Journal, 9: 347–352.
Lau, S., Li, C. S., Chu, D. 2004. Perceived creativity: Its relationship to social status and self-concept among Chinese high ability children. Creativity Research Journal, 16: 59–67.
Lau, S., & Cheung, C. P. 2010. Development trends of creativity: What twists of turn do boys & girls take at different grades? Creativity Research Journal 22(3): 329-336. DOI: 10.1080/10400419.2010.503543.
Lopez, E. C., Esquivel, G. B., Houtz, J. C. 1993. The creativity skills of culturally and linguistically gifted and diverse students. Creativity Research Journal, 6: 401-412.
Moore, M., & Russ, W. S. 2008. Follow-up of a pretend play interventions: Effects on play, creativity and emotional processes in children. Creativity Research Journal, 20 (4):, 427-436.
Mullineaux, Y. P., & Dilalla, F. L. 2009. Preschool pretend play behaviors and early adolescent creativity. Journal of Creative Behavior, 43(1): 41-57.
Pasternak, D.P. 2006. Analyzing parent-child interactions during study-related activities and their impact on children’s self-regulated learning. Paper presented at the Second Meeting of the EARLISIG 16: Metacognition. University of Cambridge.
Reese, H. W., Lee, L. J., Cohen, S. H., Puckett, J. M., JR. 2001. Effects of intellectual variables, age, and gender on divergent thinking in adulthood. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25: 491-500.
Rejskind, F. G., Rapagna, S. O., Gold, D. 1999. Gender differences in children’s divergent thinking. Creativity Research Journal, 5: 165-174.
Reis, S. M. 1999. Women and creativity. In M. Runco & S. Pritzker (Eds.), Encyclopedia of creativity, 2, (pp. 699–708). San Diego, CA: Academic Press
Russ, S. W. 1993. Affect and creativity: The role of affect and play in the creative process. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Russ, S.W. 2003. Projective assessment of affect in children’s play. In M. Hilsenroth & D. Segal (Eds) Comprehensive Handbook of Psychological Assessment, 2, Objective and Projective Assessment of Personality and Psychopathology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Russ, W. S. 2003. Play and creativity: Developmental issues. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 47(3): 291-303.
Russ, W. S., & Kaugars, S. A. 2000-2001. Emotions in children’s play and creativity problem solving. Creativity Research Journal, 13(2): 211-219.
Russ, W. S., Robins, L. A., Christiano, A. B. 1999. Pretend play: Longitudinal prediction of creativity and affect in fantasy in children. Creativity Research Journal, 12(2): 129-139.
Saracho, N. O. 1992. Preschool children’s cognitive style and play and implications for creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 5(1): 35-47.
Saracho, O. N. 2002. Young children’s creativity and pretend play. Early Child Development and Care, 172: 431-438.
Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. 1997. Emotion regulation among school age children: The development and validation of a new criterion q-sort scale. Developmental Psychology, 33: 906–916.
Singer, D., & Singer, J. L. (1990). The house of make-believe. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Smith, J. W., & Carlsson, I. 1983. Creativity in early and middle school years. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 6: 167-195.
Smith, J. W., & Carlsson, I. 1985. Creativity in middle and late school years. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 8: 329-343.
Smith, J. W., & Carlsson, I. 1990. The creative process: A functional model based on empirical studies from early childhood to middle age. Madison, CT: International Universities Press.
Torrence, E. P. 1962. Guiding creative talent. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Urban, K. K., & Jellen, H. G. 1986. Assessing creative potential via drawing production: the Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production (TCT-DP). In A. J. Cropley, K. K. Urban, H.Wagner, & W. Wieczerkowski (Eds.), Giftedness: A continuing world-wide challenge (pp. 163-169). New York: Trillium Press.
Wallach, M., & Kogan, N. 1965. Modes of thinking in young children: A study of the creativity-intelligence distinction. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston
Werebe, M. J. G., & Baudonniere, P.M. 1991. Social pretend play among friends and familiar preschoolers. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 14: 411-428.
Williams, F. E. 1993. Creativity Assessment packet examiner’s manual. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Whitebread, D., Coltman, P., Jameson, H., Lander, R. 2009. Play cognition and self regulation: What exactly are children learning when they learn through play? Education & Child Psychology 26(2): 40-52.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).