Retention of Highly Skilled Workers in Science and Technology: Distant Regional Employers’ Point of View
Keywords:Retention, voluntary turnover, employers’ point of view, strategies, practices
AbstractThis exploratory research focuses on the retention of highly skilled workers in science and technology (HSWST) in the distant regions of Canada. Indeed, the human resource shortage forces them to seek more stability in their employment relationships. Our first objective is to analyze the point of view of distant regional employers regarding their retention capacity of HSWST and the reasons behind voluntary turnover in this group of workers. Our second objective is to analyze the retention strategies and practices implemented by these employers. This study uses a qualitative approach, which is to say the case study of businesses hiring HSWST in the Lower St. Lawrence Region of Canada. Results show that employers generally think they have good retention capacity. Employers believe that departures are chiefly due to personal reasons or working conditions. In addition, employers generally have no formal or planned strategies or practices with respect to retention.
Abelson, M. A. (1987). Examniation of Avoidable and Unavoidable Turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 27(3), 382-386.
Arthur, D. (2001). The Employee Recruitment and Retention Handbook. New York: Amacon.
Arthur, J. B. (1994). Effects on Human Resource Systems on Manufacturing Performance and Turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 670-687.
Bajpai, N., Prasad, A., & Pandey, P. N.(2013), Work Life Balance Retention (WLBR) Model – A Weapon to Retain Hi-Tech Employees. International Journal of Management Sciences and Business Research, 2(12), p. 92-99.
Campion, M.. (1991). Meaning and Measurement of Turnover: Comparison of Alternative Measures and Recommandations for Research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(2), 199-212.
Cavanagh, S. J., & Coffin, D. A. (1992). Staff turnover among hospital nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17(11), 1369-1376.
CETECH (2010). Quelques résultats sur l’enquête sur le recrutement et l’emploi (EREQ). Gouvernement du Québec.
Chênevert, D., Charrest, A., & Simard, G. (2007). Study of the Development of the Determinants of Affective Commitment: The Role of Empowerment, of Career Plateauing and of Organizational Justice. Relations industrielles/Industrial Relations, 62(2), 258-281.
Cohen-Carash, Y., & Spector, P. E. (2001). The role of justice in organizations: a meta-analysis''. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86(2), 278-321.
Combs, J., Liu, Y., Hall A., & Ketchen, D. (2006). How much do high-performance work practices matter? A meta-analysis of their effects on organizational performance. Personnel Psychology, 59(3), 501-528.
Cotton, J. L., & Tuttle, J. M. (1986). Employee turnover: a meta-analysis and review with implications for research. The Academy of Management Review, 11(1), 55-70.
Fields, D., Dingman, M. E., Roman, P. M., & Blum, T. C. 2005. Exploring predictors of alternative job changes. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78, 63-82.
Fisher, C. B., & Gitelson R. (1983). A meta-analysis of the correlates of role conflict and ambiguity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(2), 320-333.
Godard, J. (2001). High Performance and the transformation of work? The implications of alternative work practices for the experience and outcomes of work. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 54(4), 776-805.
Griffeth, R. W., & Hom P. W. (2001), Retaining valued employees, Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P. W., & Gaertner, S. (2000). A Meta-Analysis of Antecedents and Correlates of Employee Turnover: Update, Moderator Tests, and Research Implications for the Next Millenium. Journal of Management 26(3), 463-488.
Guthrie, J. P. (2001). High-invovement work practices, turnover, and productivity: Evidence form New Zeland. Academy of Management Journal, 44(1), 180-190.
Hassan, M., Akram, A., & S. Naz, S. (2012), The Relationship between Person Organization Fit, Person-Job-Fit and Turnover Intention in Banking Sector of Pakistan: The Mediating Role of Psychological Climate, International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 2(3), 172-188
Holtom, B. C., . Mitchell, T.R, Lee, T. W., & Inderrieden, E. J. (2005). Shocks as causes of turnover: What can they are and how organizations can manage them. Human Resource Management, 44(3), 337-352.
Hom, P. W., Caranikas-Walker, F., Prussia, G. E., & Griffeth, R.. 1992. A meta-analytical structural equation analysis of a model of employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(6), 890-909.
Huffman, A. H., Casper, W. J., & Payne, S.C. (2014). How does spouse career support relate to employee turnover? Work interfering with family and job satisfaction as mediator. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(2), 194-212.
Huselid, M. A. (1995). The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 38(3), 635-672.
Iverson, R. D., & Pullman, J. A.. 2000. Determinants of Voluntary Turnover and Layoffs in an Environment of Repeated Downsizing Following a Merger: An Envent History Analysis. Journal of Management, 26(5), 977-1003.
Ito, J. K., Brotheridge, C. M., & McFarland, K. (2013). Examining how preferences for employer branding attributes differ from entry to exit and how they relate to commitment, satisfaction, and retention, Career Development International, 18(7), 732-752.
Khalid, S. A., Nor, M. N. M., Ismail, M., & Razali, M. F. M. (2013). Organizational Citizenship and Generation Y Turnover Intention, International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 13(7), 132-141.
Ko, J.-W., Price, J. L., & Mueller, C. W. (1997). Assessment of Meyer and Allen’s three component model of organizational commitment in South Korea. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(6), 961-973.
Lee, G., & Rwigema, H. (2005). Mobley revisited: dynamism in the process of employee turnover. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(9), 1671-1690.
Lee, T. W., Holtom, B. C., McDaniel, L. S., & Hill, J. W. (1999). «The Unfolding Model of Voluntary Turnover: A Replication and Extension». Academy of Management Journal, 42(4), 450-452.
Locke, E. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (pp. 1297-1349). Chicago: Radn McNally.
Luna-Arocas, R., & Camps, J. (2008). A model of high performance work practices and turnover intentions. Personnel Review, 37(1), 26-46.
Mansell, A., Brough, P., & Cole, K. (2006), Stable Predictors of Job Satisfaction, Psychological Strain, and Employee Retention: An Evaluation of Organizational Change Within the New Zealand Customs Service. International Journal of Stress Management, 13(1), 84-107.
March, J. G., & Herbert, S. (1958). Organizations, New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1988). Links between work experiences and organizational commitment during the first year of employment: a longitudinal analysis. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 11(3), 299-326.
Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization: A Meta-analysis of Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61(2), 20-52.
Mobley, William H. 1977. ''Intermediate Linkages in the Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Employee Turnover''. Journal of Applied Psychology 62, no. 2: 4.
Mobley, W. H. (1982). Some Unanswered Questions in Turnover and Withdrawal Research. Academy of Management Review, 7(1), 6.
Neal, D. (1998). The link between ability and specialization: An explanation for observed correlations between wages and mobility rates. Journal of Human Resources, 33(1), 173-201.
Podsakoff, N. P., LePine, J. A., & LePine, M A. (2007). Differential Challenge Stressor–Hindrance Stressor Relationships With Job Attitudes, Turnover Intentions, Turnover, and Withdrawal Behavior: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2): 438-454.
Podsakoff, N. P., Whiting, S. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & Blume, B. D.(2009), Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis, Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1), 122-141.
Price, J. L. (1977). The study of turnover. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
Price, J. L. 2001. Reflections on the determinants of voluntary turnover. International Journal of Manpower, 22(7/8) 600-624.
Shaw, J. D., . Delery, J. E, Jenkins D. G., & Gupta, N. (1998). An organization-level analysis of voluntary turnover and involuntary turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 41(5), 511-525.
Tangthong, S., Trimetsoontorn, J., & Rojniruntikul, N. (2014). HRM Practice and Employee Retention in Thailand-A Literature Review. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 5(2), 162-266.
Tett, R. P., & Meyer, J. P. (1993). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover : Path analyses based on meta-analytic findings. Personnel Psychology, 46(2), 259-293.
Treuren, G. J. M., & Frankish, E. (2014),The impact of pay understanding on pay satisfaction and retention : Salary sacrifice understanding in the not-for-profit sector, Journal of Industrial Relations, 56(1), 103-122.
van Ours, J. (1990). An international comparative study on job mobility. Labour 4(3), 33-55.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).