The Phonemic Value of Pashto Language Special Letters
Keywords:Pashto phonemes, dialect, dental affricates, retroflex nasal, retroflex oral stops, retroflex palatal fricatives.
AbstractThis academic paper assists its readers in the field of Pashto Language phonetics insight that in the future study it can be used as a source for its users. Phonetic is one branch of linguistics because phonetics studies the human’s practical sound scientifically. Phonetics provides some approaches for description of classification and writing of sounds. This paper is regarding the rules of Pashto Language productive phonetics in order to prove whether there is such grapheme and phonemes in other world languages or not? Therefore, the diversity of Afghanistan language, particularly Pashto Language is counted as the cultural heir and rich wealth for current globe. Hence, in this academic paper Pashto Language phonemics rules are studied and linguistic study of it opens a door for Afghan users. For this reason, phonetic is the basic study of linguistics and literature is depended on grammar and grammar is relied on morphology and morphology is depended on phonology and phonology is the base and important element of phonetics. The other spot of this paper is the similarity of some phonetics letters of Pashto Language alphabet with Indo-European because Pashto Language is on branch of Indo-European family and has its own alphabet with special features that the speakers use it. The phonemic rules of aforementioned language is like other Indo-European languages.
Amid, Hassan. 2010. Amid Dictionary. Tehran, Sika Publications.
Appen Butler Hill. 2015. Language Specific Peculiarities Document for Pashto as Spoken in Pakistan and Afghanistan. https://catalog.ldc.upenn.edu/docs/LDC2016S09/LSP_104_final.pdf [June 17, 2019]
Aslamzai, Sebghatullah and Saidah Saad. 2015. Pashto language stemming algorithm. Asia-Pacific Journal of Information Technology and Multimedia. Vol. 4 No. 1, June 2015: 25 – 37
Ibrahimi, Mohammad Husain. 2013. Articulatory phonetics, Kabul, Samar International Organization
Ijaz, Majiha. 2003. Phonemic Inventory of Pashto. http://www.cle.org.pk/Publication/Crulp_report/CR03_15E.pdf [June 17, 2019]
Ilham, Mohammad Rahim.1989. Study of Pashto phonetics. Kabul, Afghanistan Academy of Science Press
Marhoon, Mahmood. 2015. Phonology. Kabul, Kainat Educational and Translation Center
Mashwani, Abdul Qaium. 1996. Descriptive Pashto. Jalalabad, Momand Publication Society
Method, P. 2010. Where in the world do they speak Pashto? http://www.pimsleurmethod.com/blog/2010/11/01/where-in-the-world-do-they-speakpashto [March 17, 2011].
Rishad, Abdul Shukor. 2008. Lexical research. Kandahar, Alama Rishad Academy
Rishad, Abdul Shukor. 2008. Pashto former alphabet. Kandahar, Alama Rishad Academy
Sadeqi, Ali Ashraf. 2007. Iranian languages. Tehran, Sukhan Publications.
Shpoon, Wajiullah.2010. Relationship of Pahsto with historic languages. Jalalabad, Danesh Publication
Zyar, M.A. 2003.Pashto Grammar. Peshawar: Danish Publishing Association.
Zyar, Mujawir. 2003. Pashto grammar. Peshawer, Danesh Publication.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).