The Image of Egypt in a Selection of Elizabethan & Jacobean Plays
Keywords:Literature, Post-Colonialism, Orientalism, Xenophobia, Egypt, Identity, Stereotypes.
AbstractThis study communicates the question of representational Egypt(ians) through textual analysis and close reading of Elizabethan and Jacobean selected plays, whose main concern is Egypt and Egyptians: Shakespeare’s Antony & Cleopatra, As You Like It, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, (All Is True)Henry VIII, and Cymbeline, Marlowe’s The Jew of Malta, Jonson’s The Alchemist, Beaumont and Fletcher’s The False One, Daniel’s The Tragedie of Cleopatra, Chapman’s The Blind Beggar of Alexandria, and Webster’s The White Devil. It examines the process of labelling, the concomitant negative stereotyping of land and human, and its effect upon characters’ lives and future prospects as a result of the dramatists’ response to contemporary colonialist discourse that exaggerated the signs of cultural and epistemological difference.
Bayouli, T., “Elizabeth Orientalism and its Context: The Representation of the Orient in Early Modern Drama” http://www.emuni.si/press/ISSN/1855-3362/1_109-128.pdf Web.20 May 2016.
Beaumon F. & John F., (1969) The False One: A Tragedy. The Works of Fancis Beaumon and John Fletcher. Ed. A. R. Waller. Vol. III. New York: Octagon Books.
Bhabha, H., (1983) “The Other Question … Homi K Bhabha Reconsiders The Stereotype and Colonial Discourse”, Screen, Vol. 24, No. 6, Nov-Dec.
Chapman, G., (1970) The Blind Beggar: The Plays of George Chapman. Eds. Allan Holaday & Michael Kiernam. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Clarke, J. J., (1997) Oriental Enlightenment- The Encounter Between Asian and Western Thought. London: Routledge.
Daniel, S., (1963) The Tragedie of Cleopatra. Materials for the Study of Old English Drama. Ed. M. Lederer. Vaduz: Krauz Reprints LTD.
Degabrielle, M., (1997) Postorientalism: Orientalism since Orientalism. Perth: Murdoch University Press.
Foucault, M., (2002) Archeology of Knowledge. Trans. A. M. Sheridan Smith. London; New York: Routledge Classics.
Gajowski, Evelyne, (1992) The Art of Loving: Female Subjectivity and Male Discursive Traditions in Shakespeare’s Tragedies. London: Associated University Presses.
Guerin, W. L., Labor, E. G., Morgan L., and Willingham, J. R., (1979) A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc.2nd edition.
Hamamra, Bilal, (2016) “Silence, Speech and Gender in Webster’s The White Devil: A Prentist Palestinian Perspective.” Early Modern Literary Studies Vol. 19, No.1, pp.1-19.
Hawamdeh, Mufeed, (1987) “Shakespeare’s Treatment of the Moor in Othello.” International Journal of Islamic and Arabic Studies Vol.4, No.1, pp.93-114.
Hall, Stuart, and Paul du Gay (eds.), (1997) Questions of Cultural Identity. London: Sage Publications Ltd.
Jonson, Ben, (1988) The Alchemist. Ed. Douglas Brown. New York: W W Norton and Company Inc.
Kabbani, Rana,(1986) Europe’s Myths of Orient: Devise and Rule. London: The Macmillan Press LTD.
Kallendorf, Hilaire, (2014) “Sex(y) Summer Solstice: Lope De Vega and Shakespeare Write Fantasies of Feminine Desire”. Comparative Literature Studies Vol. 51, No. 3, pp.397-417.
Langton, Marcia, (1993)‘Well, I heard it on the radio and I saw it on the television…’- An Essay for the Australian Film Commission on the Politics and Aesthetics of filmmaking by and about Aboriginal People and Things. Australian Film Commission, 3rd edition.
Marlowe, C., (1979) The Jew of Malta. Ed. T. W. Craik. New York: W W Norton and Company Inc.
Memmi, A., (1974) The Colonizer and The Colonized. London: Souvenir Press.
Minton, Gretchen E. (2013) “Apocalyptic Tragicomedy for a Jacobean Audience: Dekker's Whore of Babylon and Shakespeare’s Cymbeline.” Renaissance & Reformation/Renaissance et Reforme Vol. 36, No.1, pp.129-152.
Moran, A., (2013) “The Apotropaic and Sanctified Marriage of Sulfur and Mercury in The Alchemist.” Ben Jonson Journal Vol. 20, No.1, pp.1-19.
Ngügï wa Thiong’o (1986) Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature. London: James Currey Ltd.
Nietzsche, Friedrich, (2012) The Birth of Tragedy. Trans. Clifton P. Fadiman. Massachusetts: Courier Corporation.
Said, E., (1979) Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books.
Said, E., (1984) The World, the Text, and the Critic. London: Faber and Faber Ltd.
Said, E., (1993) Culture and Imperialism. New York: Vintage.
Shakespeare, W., (1995) The Oxford Shakespeare: The Complete Works. Eds. Stanely Wells and Gary Taylor et al. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Stephen, M. &Franks, P., (1987) Studying Shakespeare. York: Longman York Press.
Studdert-Kennedy, Gerald, (1998) Providence & the Raj Imperial Mission and Missionary Imperialism. New Delhi: Sage Publication.
Sylvester, A.W., (2012) The First Mythology. Bloomington: Trafford Publishing.
Tennenhouse, Leonard, (1986) Power on Display: The Politics of Shakespeare’s Genres.Methuen: New York; London.
Traversi, D.A., (1956) An Approach to Shakespeare. New York: Anchor.
Vanhoutte, Jacqueline, (2000) “Antony’s ‘Secret House of Death’: Suicide and Sovereignty in Antony and Cleopatra.” Philological Quarterly Vol.79, No.2, pp.153–176.
Vitkus, Daniel J., (1999) “Early Modern Orientalism: Representaion of Islam in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Europe.” Western Views of Islam in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Eds. David R. Blanks & Michael Frassetto. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Vitkus J. Daniel, (2003) Turning Turk: English Theater and the Multicultural Mediterranean, 1570-1630. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Webster, J., (1977) The White Devil. Ed. John Russell Brown. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Williams, Patrick and Chrisman, Laura Eds., (1994) Colonial Discourse and Postcolonial Theory- A Reader. London: Harvest Wheatsheaf.
Willits, Catherine, (2014) “The Dynamics and Staging of Community in Medieval ‘Entry into Jerusalem’ Plays.” Medieval & Renaissance Drama in England Vol. 27, pp. 78-109.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).