Teaching English Language in Ecuador: A Review from the Inclusive Educational Approach

Jhonny Villafuerte, Yhomaly Macias Mosquera

Abstract


The inclusive education in Ecuador presents relevant advances during the century XXI. However, the information available regarding English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teaching-learning process in students with Special Educational Need (SEN) suggest the revision of the government policy from the inclusive approach for contributing to the improvement of the current teaching practice. The research aims analyzing government policy for education with an emphasis on instruction of EFL in students with disabilities for the period 1912 to 2020. This work begins with the identification of the current Ecuadorian inclusive education policy, besides the revision of previous laws regarding to the instruction of English as a Foreign Language in this country. The information obtained through the documental analysis contrasts the data emerging through contextualized observation process and semi-structured interviews applied to stakeholders from two public universities located in the province of Manabi during 2019. As a result it is exposed a chronologically systematization chart regarding the evolution of Ecuadorian education policy in which is possible to identify the key inclusive education advances and setbacks in the area of EFL. The conclusions ratified the necessity to strengthen from the inclusive approach the Ecuadorian government policies for the instruction of English as a Foreign Language of learner’s with Special Educational Needs.


Keywords


Ecuador, English as a foreign language, inclusive education, government policies.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alcívar, A., & Rodríguez-Hidalgo, A. (2019). “bullying”: a threat for inclusion of students with special educational needs - perspectives from latin america. Chapter 4 in: A. Bon, M. Pini, and H. Akkermans. Culture, Citizenship, Participation. Comparative Perspectives from Latin America on Inclusive Education. Amsterdam. Pangea. https://w4ra.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Culture_citizenship_participation_2019_English_24sept2019.pdf

Aguado, A., & Real, S. (2011). Entrevista a estudiantes universitarios/as con discapacidad revisada. En Real, S, (2011). Tesis doctoral: La situación de los Estudiantes con discapacidad en la universidad de Oviedo. Disponible en

http://digibuo.uniovi.es/dspace/bitstream/10651/3834/5/TD_Sara%20Real%20Castelao.pdf

Andrews, D., Walton, E., & Osman, R. (2019). Constraints to the implementation of inclusive teaching: a cultural historical activity theory approach. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 10 (1),1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2019.1620880

Araujo, M.D., & Bramwell, D. (2015). Cambios en la política educativa en Ecuador desde el año 2000. Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2015, UNICEF. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000232430

Bravo, S., Villafuerte, J., & Ormaza, Y. (2013). Barreras de acceso al sistema educativo regular para niños, niñas y adolescentes con discapacidad fisica del cantón Manta. Revista San Gregorio, 5(1), 16-20. Retrieved from: https://issuu.com/angelicashak/docs/contenido_revista_san_gregorio_no_5/16. (11.Jan.2020).

British Council (2015), English in Ecuador An examination of policy, perceptions and influencing factors. http://obiret-iesalc.udg.mx/sites/default/files/publicaciones/46._english_in_ecuador.pdf

Bruns, B., & Luque, J. (2015). Great Teachers: How to Raise Student Learning in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, DC: World Bank.

http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/432391468089383429/Great-teachers-how-to-raise-student-learning-in-Latin-America-and-the-Caribbean

Calle, A., Calle, S., Argudo, J., Moscoso, E., Smith, A., y Cabrera, P. (2012). Los docentes de inglés y su práctica docente: Un estudio de caso de los colegios fiscales de la ciudad de

Cuenca, Ecuador. Maskana, 3(2), 1-17.

https://publicaciones.ucuenca.edu.ec/ojs/index.php/maskana/article/view/397

Calle, A. M., Argudo, J., Cabrera, P., Calle, M. D., & Leon, M. V.; (2015). El impacto de la capacitación a profesores fiscales de inglés de Cuenca. Maskana, 3(1), 53-68.

Cevallos, P., and Bramwell, D. (2015). Ecuador, 2007–2014: Attempting a Radical Educational Transformation. In: Education in South America 2007, S. Schwartzman, ed. London: Bloomsbury Academic. https://publicaciones.ucuenca.edu.ec/ojs/index.php/maskana/article/view/475

Common Europeo Framework Reference of the language CEFR (2002). Centro Cervantes.

Recuperado de https://cvc.cervantes.es/ensenanza/biblioteca_ele/marco/cvc_mer.pdf

Corral, K., Bravo, S., & Villafuerte, J. (2015). Situación de la educación inclusiva en el cantón Manta. Situation of inclusive education in the canton Manta. Chapter in: M. Montanchez, S. Ortega and Z. Moncayo. Educación inclusiva: Realidad y desafíos. Esmeraldas. PUCESE. Retrieved from: https://www.uv.es/gem/gemeduco/publicaciones/Educaci%C3%B3n_inclusiva_familia_escuela_y_estilos_educativos_familiares.pdf. (24.jan.2019).

Education First. (EF) (2018). Índice del dominio del inglés de EF. En: Intriago, E., Villafuerte, J., Bello, J., & Cevallos, D. (2019). Teaching and learning english at the university: challenges from the Ecuadorian context. Chapter 12 in: A. Bon, M. Pini, and H. Akkermans. Culture, Citizenship, Participation. Comparative Perspectives from Latin America on Inclusive Education. Amsterdam. Pangea.

https://w4ra.org/wpcontent/uploads/2019/09/Culture_citizenship_participation_2019_English_24sept2019.pdf

Education First. (EF) (2019). EF repport 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.ef.com.ec/epi/ (26.Jan.2020).

Intriago, E., Villafuerte, J., Bello, J., & Cevallos, D. (2019). Teaching and learning english at the university: challenges from the Ecuadorian context. Chapter 12 in: A. Bon, M. Pini, and H. Akkermans. Culture, Citizenship, Participation. Comparative Perspectives from Latin America on Inclusive Education. Amsterdam. Pangea. https://w4ra.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Culture_citizenship_participation_2019_English_24sept2019.pdf

Ministry of Education of Ecuador. (2011). Acuerdo Ministerial No. 306-11. Quito, Ecuador: Government Printing Office. https://www.scribd.com/document/85041541/ACUERDO-306-11

Ministry of Education of Ecuador. (2014a). Acuerdo Ministerial No. 0041-14. Quito, Ecuador: Government Printing Office. http://profesornelsonvargas.blogspot.com/2014/03/acuerdo-ministerial-no-0041-14.html

Ministry of Education of Ecuador. (2014b). Acuerdo Ministerial No. 0052-14. Quito, Ecuador: Government Printing Office. https://vlex.ec/vid/transitoria-contenida-ministerial-2014-519249742

Ministry of Education of Ecuador. (2014c). Ministro De Educación Explica El Fortalecimiento Del Aprendizaje Del inglés En El Sistema Educativo Del País (Ecuador). Retrieved Jan.24.2020. from: http://educacion.gob.ec/ministro-de-educacion-explica-el-fortalecimiento-del-aprendizaje-del-ingles-en-elsistema-educativo-del-pais/

Ministry of Education of Ecuador. (2016a). Acuerdo Ministerial No. MINEDUC-ME-2016-00020-A. Quito, Ecuador: Government Printing Office. http://www.conexion.ec/?p=176

Ministry of Education of Ecuador. (2016b). IT IS TIME TO TEACH IN ECUADOR PROJECT. Retrieved September 21, 2019, from https://educacion.gob.ec/it-is-time-to-teach-in-ecuador-project

Ministry of Education of Ecuador. (2016). English language curriculum - Actualizado . Quito: Ministerio de Educación. https://educacion.gob.ec/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2014/09/01-National-Curriculum-Guidelines-EFL-Agosto-2014.pdf

Páez, J. (2013). El nuevo plan de enseñanza de inglés en Ecuador. Recuperado de

http://educacion.gob.ec/wpcontent/uploads/downloads/2013/03/estandares_2012

Pinoargote, J. (2019). La inclusión social de personas con discapacidad en Ecuador; mitos o realidad. 3era. Jornadas de Investigación, Innovación y Desarrollo. Pp. 35-46. Ecuador. Editorial ULEAM. Retrieved from:http://www.munayi.uleam.edu.ec/3era-jornadas-de-investigacion-innovacion-y-desarrollo/

Republic of Ecuador (CRE) (2008). Constitución de la República del Ecuador. Recuperado de http://www.asambleanacional.gob.ec/sites/default/files/documents/old/constitucion _de_bolsillo.pdf

Richards, C. (2006). Communicative language teaching today. Ingland. Cambridge press. https://www.professorjackrichards.com/wp-content/uploads/Richards-Communicative-Language.pdf

Rodríguez-Hidalgo, A. J., Pantaleon, Y., & Calmaestra, J. (2019). Psychological Predictors of Bullying in Adolescents From Pluricultural Schools: A Transnational Study in Spain and Ecuador. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1383. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01383

Ross, B., Cevallos, P., & Bruns, B. (2017). The Politics of Transforming Education in Ecuador: Confrontation and Continuity, 2006-17 https://www.riseprogramme.org/sites/www.riseprogramme.org/files/inline-files/Bruns%20The%20politics%20of%20transforming%20education%20in%20Ecuador%206.11.2017.pdf

Soto, S., Intriago, E., Vargas, E., Cajamarca, M. Cardenas, S., Frabre, P., Bravo, I., Morales, M.A., Villafuerte, J. (2017). English Language Teaching in Ecuador: An Analysis of its Evolution within the National. Tojet, Especial Edition (1). 235-244. https://flore.unifi.it/retrieve/handle/2158/1122934/324444/articolo%20TOSET%20shareandteach.pdf

Tuiran, R., & Avila, J. L. (2012). Jovenes que no estudian ni trabajan: .Cuantos son?, .quienes son?, .que hacer?1. Retrieved August 14, 2019, from Revista Este Pais website:

https://archivo.estepais.com/site/2012/jovenes-que-no-estudian-ni-trabajan-

%c2%bfcuantos-son-%c2%bfquienes-son-%c2%bfque-hacer/

UNESCO. (2008a). Concepto de Inclusion. In: Ministerio de Educación del Ecuador (2011). Módulo i educación inclusiva y especial, p.29. disponible en http://educacion.gob.ec/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2013/07/Modulo _Trabajo_EI.pdf (25.Jan.2020)

UNESCO (2008b). ICT Competency Standards for Teachers. Retrieved from

http://www.unesco.org/en/competency-standards-teachers

UNESCO (2011). ICT Competency Framework Standars for Teachers. Retrieved from

http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002134/213475e.pdf.

Varela, R. (2010). El proceso de formacióndelprofesional en la educación superior basado en competencias: el desafío de sucalidad, en busca de una mayor integralidad de los egresados, [The process of professional training in higher education based in competitions: the challenge of its quality, in search of a greater integrality of the graduates]. Civilizar, 10 (18), 117-134. Retrieved from: In: http://www.scielo.org.co/pdf/ccso/v10n18/v10n18a12.pdf

Villafuerte, J., Luzardo, L., Bravo, S., & Romero, A. (2017). Implications and tensions of educational inclusion process, teenagers with physical disabilities tell their experiences. Cumbres, 3(2), 09-16. Retrieved from: https://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/6550754.pdf. (5.Jan.2020).

Villafuerte, J., Perez, L., Boyes, E., Mena, L. Pinoargote, J., Riera, A., Soledispa, E., y

Delgado, D. (2018). Challenges of the basic education system in Ecuador; the voices of the future teachers. Arts and Humanities Open Access Journal, 2(4), 217-224. https://medcraveonline.com/AHOAJ/AHOAJ-02-00061.pdf




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18533/journal.v9i2.1854

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




.............................................................................................................................

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

.............................................................................................................................

If you find difficulties in submitting manuscript please forward your doc file to support@theartsjournal.org. Our support team will assist you in submission process and other technical matters.

In order to get notifications on inbox please add theartsjournal.org in your email safe list.

Journal of Arts and Humanities (Print) ISSN:2167-9045

Journal of Arts and Humanities (Online) ISSN: 2167-9053

[Journal of Arts and Humanities previously published by MIR Center for Socio-Economic Research, MD, USA. From February 2018 this journal is published by the LAR Center Press, OR, USA]